Ancient History- Harappa Civilization in English (Theory)

As we already know that history is divided into three parts, ancient history, mediaeval history and modern history. Today we are looking forward to ancient History, our first important chapter is the Indus valley civilization which is also called the Harappan civilization because Harappa was the first archaeological site to be discovered, therefore gives its name to the entire civilization.

  • it was a urban civilization
  • The first civilization in South Asia

The civilization is also classified into three phases :

  • the early/ pre Harappan phase ( 3200-2600 BC)
  • Mature Harappan phase ( 2600- 1900 BC)
  • Late Harappan phase (1900 – 1300 BC)

below is some important sites of Harappan civilization :

DholaviraKutch areaGujrat
( pakistan)
Chanhu DaroIndusPakistan

Important artifacts found:

  • A dockyard has been found in Lothal and sea ports have been found at rangpur, Somnath and balakot
  • Bead making factories at chanhudaro and lothal
  • Ivory scale has been discovered at Lothal
  • Fire altars have been found in kalibangan and Lothal
  • Ploughed fields have been found at Kalibangan
  • Terracotta models of plough have been found at banwali and Bhawalpur
  • Dogs with man in Graves found at ropar

Lets check out when was the sites discovered :

Harappadayaram sahni, (1921)
mohenjodaro rakhal Das bandyopadhyay (1922)
BanawaliR S Bisht ( 1973-74)
Kalibanganamlanand Ghosh (1953)
DholaviraJ.p.joshi (1990-91)

Some important details of sites :

mohenjo daro* Mound of the dead
* Bronze dancing girl
* Great bath
* Seal representing mother Goddess,
bearded man
Lothal* dockyard found
* Evidence of double burial
* Ivory scale found
* Terracotta model of ship found
Kalibangan* ploughed field found here
( কর্ষিত জমি)
*Fire altars showing practice of cult of sacrifice
Banawali*Clay model of plough
* Fire altars
Chanhu Daro* clay model of four wheeler
* Only Harappan city without a citadel
Dholavira* unique water harvesting system
* Shows all 3 phases of Harappan culture
Ropar* evidence of burying dog below human
Surkotda* bones of horse and graveyard
Rakhigarhi* largest Indus valley civilization site
and town in the world

All the best.